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Antenna Design and Analysis for Wireless Devices and Networks
As communication devices become smaller due to greater integration of electronics, the antenna becomes a significantly larger part of the overall package volume. This results in a demand for similar reductions in antenna size. However, reducing antenna size without significantly impacting gain and efficiency is a challenging task. As integration increases, a single antenna is often required to support two or more of the many wireless services across a broad frequency range. Multi-band and wideband antennas being developed to meet this need.
The third trend is the increased use of antenna arrays and development of new approaches for using arrays to improve system performance. These new compact, multiband, wideband and array antennas will serve in a wide variety of applications, but require innovative designs. In addition to the familiar cellular voice services, there many other audio, data and video applications. Wireless local loop service may finally become available using the 2.4 GHz ISM or 5.7 GHz NII bands. Wireless services include entertainment as well as voice communications. Short-range wireless data communications likely to become ubiquitous as inexpensive transceivers using the Bluetooth standard embedded in a wide range of devices. Wireless local a networks (WLAN) have existed for several years, but now large wireless data networks under development. These and other emerging wireless applications will require high performance, low profile antennas to operate in fixed, mobile, handheld and airborne environments. 
In order to build up an optimum architecture for a cellular system using advanced antenna base station, following factors considered –
·          Operator requirements – Type and quality of service required
·          Network scalability aspects – Coverage to capacity ratio
·          Application modularity – Data and Voice based services and applications
·          Deployment and Migration – Usage strategies in geographical location
·          Protocol aspects – Implementation complexity
·          Coverage to capacity benefits – New techniques involved
·          Cost to Benefit ratio – Customers and Competitors

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